Marc A. Pfeffer, M Click here .D., Ph.D., Emmanuel A. Burdmann, M.D., Ph.D., Chao-Yin Chen, Ph.D., Tag E. Cooper, M.D., Dick de Zeeuw, M.D., Ph.D., Kai-Uwe Eckardt, M.D., Jan M. Feyzi, M.S., Peter Ivanovich, M.D., Reshma Kewalramani, M.D., Andrew S. Levey, M.D., Eldrin F. Lewis, M.D., M.P.H., Janet B. McGill, M.D., John J.V. McMurray, M.D., Patrick Parfrey, M.D., Hans-Henrik Parving, M.D., Giuseppe Remuzzi, M.D., Ajay K. Singh, M.D., Scott D. Solomon, M.D., and Robert Toto, M.D. For the TREAT Investigators: A Trial of Darbepoetin Alfa in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease Type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease frequently coexist, and each disease independently increases the risk of cardiovascular occasions and end-stage renal disease.1,2 Intensive treatment of concomitant conventional risk factors such as for example hypertension and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein decreases fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular problems and slows the progression of kidney disease.3-8 Observational studies suggest that anemia can be considered another biomarker of risk, since a lesser hemoglobin level is connected with an increased rate of cardiovascular and renal events independently, 9-11 especially among patients with diabetes.12,13 Whether the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating brokers to improve hemoglobin amounts lowers this risk is not known.14 Early studies relating to the usage of recombinant individual erythropoietin in patients with severe anemia who were undergoing dialysis showed a reduced requirement of blood transfusions and improved quality-of-life assessments, that have been considered major advances.15,16 Extrapolations from these favorable effects to other populations, including sufferers with anemia and earlier levels of chronic kidney disease, led to the wider usage of ESAs.
In this context, we performed two analyses. First, we used the same genetic approach to investigate the association between height-related genetic variants and several set up and potential cardiovascular risk elements. Notable negative findings right here include the lack of an overall effect of height-associated SNPs on body-mass index. This shows that the association between shorter stature and an increased risk of CAD isn’t mediated by an effect on obesity. On the other hand, there was a significant overall association between height SNPs and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a direction consistent with their association with CAD. The association between shorter stature and elevated plasma LDL cholesterol and triglyceride amounts has also been seen in epidemiologic studies.2 The mechanisms by which height-associated SNPs have an effect on LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels are not clear.