• Home The Anchorage Daily News reports.

The Anchorage Daily News reports.

Copyright 2007 Advisory Board Firm and Kaiser Family Basis. All rights reserved.. Alaska Medicare beneficiaries have problems finding primary care physicians Alaska Medicare beneficiaries knowledge greater difficulty than beneficiaries in other says to find primary care doctors, and ‘evidence indicates’ the problem is ‘worsening’ amid a growing physician shortage and low federal reimbursements rates, the Anchorage Daily News reports. A 2006 research by the Government Accountability Office found that twice as many Alaska residents than the national average reported major difficulty finding a primary care physician.Van Raamsdonk, Ph.D., Klaus G. Griewank, M.D., Michelle B. Crosby, M.D., Ph.D., Maria C. Garrido, M.D., Ph.D., Swapna Vemula, M.S., Thomas Wiesner, M.D., Anna C. Obenauf, Ph.D., Werner Wackernagel, M.D., Gary Green, M.A., Nancy Bouvier, B.S., M. Mert Sozen, Ph.D., Gail Baimukanova, M.D., Ritu Roy, M.A., Adriana Heguy, Ph.D., Igor Dolgalev, B.A., Raya Khanin, Ph.D., Klaus Busam, M.D., Michael R. Speicher, M.D., Joan O’Brien, M.D., and Boris C. Bastian, M.D.: Mutations in GNA11 in Uveal Melanoma Uveal melanoma is a neoplasm that comes from melanocytes of the choroid plexus, ciliary body, and iris of the eye.1 Unlike cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma lacks mutations in BRAF, NRAS, or KIT 2-5 and has characteristic cytogenetic alterations6 and a strong tendency to metastasize to the liver.1,7 The nevus of Ota, a subtle intradermal proliferation of melanocytes resulting in bluish-gray hyperpigmentation in the sclera and periorbital dermis, is a risk factor for uveal melanoma.9 The microscopical appearance of your skin of the mutant mice is reminiscent of that of human blue nevi,9,10 a finding that prompted us to sequence GNA11 and GNAQ in blue nevi, as well as in a number of other cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms.11 We found somatic GNAQ mutations in 83 percent of blue nevi but no mutations in GNA11.11 Because of the link between the nevus of Ota, a form of blue nevus, and uveal melanoma,8 we subsequently genotyped the GNAQ mutational hotspot, predicted to affect the glutamine residue at amino acid position 209 , in uveal melanomas and observed that 46 percent of major lesions carried mutations.11 GNAQ encodes the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, which few seven-transmembrane domain receptors to intracellular signaling machinery.12 Heterotrimeric G proteins are composed of three subunits , of which there are many family members.12 The alpha subunit acts as a molecular switch for the G proteins, which is active when bound to guanosine triphosphate and shut down when GTP is hydrolyzed to guanosine diphosphate .13,14 In the alpha subunit, if there are substitutions of specific glutamine or arginine residues that contact the GTP molecule, its intrinsic GTPase activity is blocked then.